Dark Chocolate can improve Cognitive function and help the brain

June 28, 2016

There are a number of good reasons to eat dark chocolate. I myself try to eat dark chocolate every day. So it was interesting to read a recent study which suggests that “people who eat chocolate at least once a week tend to perform better cognitively“. The researchers say that eating chocolate helps the brain with regular tasks like “remembering a phone number, or your shopping list, or being able to do two things at once, like talking and driving at the same time

Interestingly, the study doesn’t limit benefits to dark chocolate and that suggests that eating regular chocolate  (e.g. milk chocolate which accounts for around 85% chocolate sales in the US) might also help the brain. However, I’ve headlined this post with “dark” chocolate because it seems more likely (from a lot of other research) that cocoa flavanols found in dark chocolate are responsible for improved brain function.

How Walking in Nature Helps the Brain and Combats Stress

June 21, 2016


Walking is tied to a number of  health benefits and should (almost) always be encouraged. That is why we created a pedometer app to track steps. However, anecdotally, many of us would agree that walking in a natural environment is generally a more pleasant experience than other walking. From my own experience in walking in cities and towns across four continents and natural environments across five continents, I can relate to Henry David Thoreau who said “I think that I cannot preserve my health and spirits, unless I spend four hours a day at least – and it is commonly more than that – sauntering through the woods and over the hills and fields,  absolutely free from all worldly engagements.” even though I myself don’t walk four hours a day in any environment, let alone walk in nature for four hours.

Given anecdotal experience with walking in nature, it is interesting to see that medical science can now use data to explain the neurological mechanisms of how walking in nature helps the brain. A Stanford study establishes that cerebral blood flow and neural activity in the subgenual prefrontal cortex (sgPFC) is decreased for nature walkers and not for urban walkers. Self-reporting from the walkers also showed that nature walkers ruminated less. I first heard about this study from a column that explains the Stanford study for a wider audience

The sgPFC (or Brodmann Area 25, BA25) plays a major role in depression and decreased neural activity in this area can help prevent depression and combat stress. Since walking in nature helps the brain (specifically the BA25 region) and decreased rumination/brooding helps reduce stress, the results of the Stanford study strongly suggest that walking in nature can change the brain in ways that help mental health, improve mood and reduce the chances of depression.

Clearly, walking in nature is not a viable option for all people in all circumstances. Health conditions, weather conditions or concerns about some wild animals, criminal humans etc. may dissuade some people from walking in nature. However, for those who enjoy walking in nature and for those who’d like to consider it, studies seem to establish that walking in nature can impact the subgenual prefrontal cortex in ways that are good for the brain.